This conclusion consists of two parcels. In the first parcel it is claimed that the same consequence follows from two various bases. In the second parcel which is disjunctive judgment, it is claimed that one or other of these bases truly. In the conclusion the consequence is approved.
The logic, among other things, is of great importance for expression of thoughts in written and oral speech. After all the listener or the reader with bigger ease perceives the thoughts stated by other person if they were given a logical order.
One of kinds of deductive conclusions is the dividing syllogism. As dividing, or disjunctive, are called as syllogisms such which first parcel is dividing (dizjyunktivno judgment. Second parcel and conclusion judgment essence dividing or categorical.
Therefore if one of opposite judgments truly, another is by all means false but if one of opposite judgments in a false manner, it is impossible to claim unconditionally that other judgment is true, - it vaguely, that is it can be both true, and false.
The relation of submission exists between judgments of A and J (all-affirmative and chastnoutverditelny), and also between E and O (all-negative and chastnootritsatelny). Thus And on the relation of J and E in relation to About J in relation to And and About in relation to E – the subordinated judgments will be called subordinating, and.
Various methods of knowledge expanding possibilities of reason of the person are invented: modeling and mathematical methods, including probability theory, physical and biological experiments, methods of genetic engineering and information processing on the COMPUTER.
The relation of submission consists that the validity of the subordinated judgment surely follows from the validity of the subordinating judgment, but the return is optional, that is at the validity of the subordinated judgment subordinating will be uncertain – it can be both true, and false. But if the subordinated judgment is false, the subordinating judgment will be especially false. The return is besides optional, i.e. at falsehood of the subordinating judgment subordinated it can be both true, and false.
In this mode in the second parcel one alternative is approved; therefore in a conclusion all remained alternatives are denied. This mode on the result is denying, and a way of receiving this denial at it – the statement. Thereof full name of this mode such: the mode denying by means of the statement or utverzhdayushche - denying (ponendo tollens).
To expand possibilities of knowledge, the person created a microscope and the telescope, radio and television, the COMPUTER and the space rocket which allowed it more deeply and more stoutly to learn properties of the natural and social phenomena.
Value of science of logic is that it is a basis of formation of the scientific device – systems of concepts of the sphere of scientific researches at the level of theoretical thinking, as well as in educational process for disclosure of essence of the studied general concepts of various disciplines, for implementation of continuity of a conceptual framework of the studied sciences.
In this mode of a dividing syllogism in the second parcel everything is denied, except one, alternative; therefore in a conclusion this remained alternative is approved. As in a conclusion we come to the statement, the mode is called approving and as to this statement we came by means of denial of alternatives, except one, the mode receives the name of the mode claiming by means of denial or otritsayushche-claiming (tollendo ponens).
The dilemma of such look contains one parcel consisting of two conditional judgments with the different bases and different consequences; the second parcel is a disjunction of denials of both consequences; the conclusion is a disjunction of denials of both bases. In a form, usual for traditional logic, the difficult destructive dilemma can be presented in the form of the following scheme:
The first (conditional) parcel specifies in this conclusion that two various consequences follow from the same basis; the second parcel represents a disjunction of denials of both of these consequences; in the conclusion the basis is denied.